2022 FIFA World Cup

Qatar is building 16 floating hotels with more than 1,600 rooms as it prepares for the 1.5 million soccer fans expected to visit during the 2022 FIFA World Cup.

Designed by the Finnish architecture firm, Sigge Architects, each floating hotel will be 72 meters long, 16 meters wide and four stories high, with 101 rooms, a restaurant and a bar.They will float off the coast of Qetaifan Island North, a 1.3-square-kilometer island with seven beaches. The island is just 15 minutes from Lusail Stadium, where the opening and final games of the World Cup will be played.

Large cruise ships, like the 2,700-room Symphony of the Seas — the world’s largest cruise ship — can only stop at ports with at least 9 meters of water. But Qatar’s floating hotels will need just 4 meters of water — which will allow them to be taken away and used on almost any other coast after the world cup is over.

Many of Qatar’s World Cup facilities will be reusable. After the World Cup, most of the 80,000 seats at Lusail Stadium will be taken out and given to other sports projects, and the stadium will become a community space with schools, shops, cafes, sports facilities and health clinics.

The 40,000-seat Ras Abu Aboud, a proposed football stadium to be built in Doha, will be made from about 1,000 shipping containers that will become bathrooms, offices and other rooms. When the World Cup is over, the stadium can be taken apart to make several smaller facilities or moved to another country for another event.

Source: Engoo

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Airplane Emissions

Of the reported 16.2% of global greenhouse gas emissions for which transportation, in general, accounts, air transport (of both people and freight) is responsible for 1.9%.2 A 2018 report from the International Council on Clean Transportation said passenger transport accounted for 81% of total aviation emissions—that’s 747 million metric tons of secreted carbon dioxide per year. The International Council on Clean Transportation says if the aviation industry were a country, it would be the sixth top greenhouse gas emitter. In the U.S. alone, emissions from domestic flights have increased by 17% since 1990, and passenger air travel continues to have a positive growth rate globally, interfering with efforts to slow global warming.

Carbon dioxide makes up about 70% of aircraft emissions. CO2 is the most widely understood greenhouse gas, which is produced by the consumption of jet fuel. The type of plane, number of passengers, and fuel efficiency are all factors in exactly how much CO2 a plane emits, but the Environmental and Energy Study Institute defines the ratio as about three pounds per pound of fuel consumed, “regardless of the phase of flight.” A chunk of the gas emitted by a single flight, the nonprofit notes, can linger in the atmosphere for thousands of years.

In addition to CO2, though, burning jet fuel also generates nitrogen oxides, classified as indirect greenhouse gases because they contribute to the creation of ozone. Although still a relatively small component of total aviation emissions, NOx emissions from air travel are increasing at a faster rate than CO2, doubling from 1990 to 2014.6 That increase can be attributed to a growing aviation industry—one whose primary environmental mission is to curb emissions from the more notorious CO2.

Of course, not all planes are created equal, and while none are truly eco-friendly, some are greener than others. The Airbus A319, for instance, outperforms the classic Boeing 737 of its size (the 300 model) in fuel efficiency. It consumes about 650 gallons of fuel per hour compared with the latter’s 800 gallons per hour. The Airbus A380 was briefly marketed as a “Gentle Green Giant,” but the ICCT notes that the Boeing 787-9 was 60% more fuel-efficient than the A380 in 2016.

The Effects of Radiative Forcing

The EESI says only 10% of gases produced by planes are emitted during the takeoff and landing (including the ascent and descent); the rest occur at 3,000 feet and higher.5 This is especially damaging because of radiative forcing, a measure of how much light gets absorbed by Earth and how much is radiated back to space. The contrails—vapor trails—planes leave in their wake cause radiative forcing and trap gases high in the atmosphere, where they cause more damage than at the ground level.

Boat Emissions

Like planes, boats also emit a cocktail of toxic greenhouse gases—including but not limited to CO2 and NOx. The amount emitted, likewise, depends on the ship’s size, age, average cruising speed, number of passengers, and length of trip. There are all sorts of watercraft, but when comparing the footprint of maritime transport—accounting for 2.5% of global greenhouse gas emissions—to that of air travel, it’s perhaps most logical to analyze the vessel most similar in size to a passenger plane: a cruise ship.

Traditional cruise ships run on diesel, one of the most CO2-producing fuel types available. According to Sailors for the Sea, a nonprofit ocean conservation organization affiliated with Oceana, marine diesel generates 21.24 pounds of CO2 per gallon of fuel.10 What’s more, cruise ships emit black carbon—soot produced by the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass—and almost six times as much as an oil tanker emits, at that. According to a 2015 report from the ICCT, cruise ships account for 6% of marine black carbon emissions despite making up only 1% of ships globally.11 The warming effect black carbon has on the climate is thought to be up to 1,500 times stronger than that of CO2.

The European Federation for Transport and Environment found in a continent-wide study on luxury cruise ship emissions that the amount of NOx released by these hefty liners was equivalent to 15% of Europe’s entire car fleet. It also found that port cities throughout Europe suffered from air pollution caused by extraordinarily high levels of sulfur oxides generated by the ships. In Barcelona, for instance, ships are generating five times more SOx than cars.

Large cruise ships designed for long-haul trips even have their own incinerators. The average cruise ship produces seven tons of solid waste every day, which leads to a reported 15 billion pounds of trash being dumped into oceans (as ash, mostly) per year. Besides the direct impact this has on marine life, the incineration process itself generates additional emissions of CO2, NOx, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, and other toxic compounds.

Ocean Acidification

In the same way planes intensify their emissions by belching greenhouse gases at altitude, emissions from ships are extra harmful because the CO2 that escapes their exhausts is promptly absorbed by seawater. Over time, this can change the pH of the ocean—a phenomenon called ocean acidification. Because increased acidity is caused by a reduction in the amount of carbonate, shells made of calcium carbonate may dissolve, and fish will find it difficult to form new ones. Ocean acidification also takes a toll on coral, whose skeletons are made of a form of calcium carbonate called aragonite.

Which Is Greener?

A 2011 case study of cruise ships in Dubrovnik, Croatia, estimated that the average CO2 emitted per person, per mile on a medium-sized 3,000-passenger cruise ship was 1.4 pounds.15 By that calculation, a round-trip cruise from Port Canaveral in Orlando, Florida, to Nassau, Bahamas—a popular, 350-mile transatlantic route frequented by Royal Caribbean International, Carnival, and Norwegian Cruise Line—would equal about 980 pounds of carbon emissions per person. That same return route, if traveled from Orlando International Airport to Nassau’s Lynden Pindling International Airport in the economy class of a passenger aircraft, would add up to only 368 pounds of CO2 emitted per person, according to the International Civil Aviation Organization’s Carbon Emissions Calculator.16 And that’s only emissions from carbon, not NOx or any other gases.

Of course, a case can be made that ferries and other, less-polluting boats provide eco-friendly alternatives to air travel. This could be the case for overwater routes that ferries can handle, such as the heavily trafficked route from Melbourne to Tasmania, Australia, or the shorter-but-equally-busy route between Morocco and Spain. But the slower-moving vessels that boast entire waterparks and golf courses on board are likely to always trump aviation in terms of greenhouse gas emissions.

Tips for Reducing Your Carbon Footprint While Traveling

  • Before booking a flight or a cruise, do your research on which airlines and cruise lines are taking steps to reduce their carbon footprints. Friends of the Earth regularly creates “cruise ship report cards” in which all the major cruise operators are given a grade based on air pollution reduction, sewage treatment, water quality compliance, and other factors. Atmosfair has released a similar ranking of airlines based on fuel efficiency.
  • Whether traveling by air or water, remember that the shorter the trip, the greener. Choose direct flights over ones with multiple stops to minimize mileage. 
  • Consider carbon offsetting your travel. Many airlines are now offering this as an additional service, but you can also donate to a carbon offsetting program of your choice, such as Carbonfund.org or Sustainable Travel International.

Source: Tree Hugger

Maltese electric boat manufacturer Zen Yachts has announced the first order for its Zen 50, the world’s first production catamaran yacht equipped with both extensive solar panels and a wingsail. Zen (short for Zero Emission Nautic) Yachts announced this week that it has sold its first Zen 50 which will immediately enter production and which is the first production yacht to be equipped with a Wingsail. The OceanWings 32 wingsail was provided by French company Aryo, a spin-off of the yacht design and naval architecture bureau VLPL, which inked a contract with Zen Yachts earlier this month to supply the 32-square-metres wingsail to Zen Yachts. The OceanWings 32 is an offspring of the Oracle wingsail which was used to defeat the conventionally rigged Alinghi in the 2010 America’s Cup in Valencia.

But the Zen 50 is more than its tall wingsail, boasting a huge solar roof with a 1:1 solar power versus displacement ratio of 16kW and 16-tonnes, making the yacht completely self-sufficient in terms of energy. The full carbon blue water capable catamaran was designed for Zen Yachts by award-winning naval architect Julien Mélot and is intended to embody genuine zero-emissions, high comfort, and performance. In addition to renewable power sources, the Zen 50 has also been built to ensure minimal drag, optimising the catamaran’s hydrodynamic performance through an in-depth Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis.

“I know from experience that to achieve complete energy self-sufficiency, a true solar boat needs to have a low energy consumption and a large solar roof area to harvest solar energy,” said Julien Mélot, designer of the Zen 50. “The ZEN 50 excels in both with her gigantic solar roof and her high-performance lightweight hulls. “The majority of solar catamarans currently on the market are equipped with a large generator, making them de facto hybrid diesel-solar-electric boats. They offer great speeds in a variety of conditions but are less eco-friendly than true zero-emission vessels. “We wanted the Zen to be a true solar boat, that’s why the first unit in construction is not equipped with any generator and will not carry a single drop of fossil fuel onboard (indeed even the tender is electric and recharged by the mother vessel).”

With 100% of the vessel’s energy harvested onboard through either its solar or wind, the yacht boasts a number of other amenities, including the ability to be equipped with a dive compressor, e-water scooter, e-foil, electric jet boards, and an electric water maker. The Zen 50 also comes with Starlink internet, two helm stations at the cockpit and flybridge, and features two large day beds, up to three dining areas for over 10 people, a professional galley and two wet kitchens, five heads, and up to four double-ensuite cabins.

Source: Joshua Hill

The 28th edition of the nautical showcase is the Mena yachting industry’s first international in-person event since the Covid-19 pandemic and will feature a high-profile, diverse collection of global marine attractions from more than 800 brands

From 100% solar-powered boats to emission-free e-foil, DIBS 2022 will present a forward-thinking, green-focused maritime and leisure future.

Dubai International Boat Show (DIBS) is set to return next week, uniting the global maritime and leisure industry and underlining the importance of sustainability with a range of interactive features and 34 exciting launches throughout the five-day show.

Running from March 9 to 13 at its new Dubai Harbour home, the 28th edition of the nautical showcase is the Mena yachting industry’s first international in-person event since the Covid-19 pandemic and will feature a high-profile, diverse collection of global marine attractions from more than 800 brands.

Visitors will be able to witness global product launches from brands including Gulf Craft, Sunreef Yachts, Al Daen, Blue Gulf Boats and Al Fajer, as well as regional launches from Princess Yachts, Cranchi, Sanlorenzo and Azimut Yachts among others.

“There is no better place in the Middle East to launch our Princess X95 and Cranchi 78 than at the Dubai International Boat Show,” said Salim Tayssoun, managing director, Princess Yachts Gulf.

“We’re bringing with us our key luxury brands: Seabob and William Tenders, in addition to welcoming Al Dhaen leisure boats in the UAE, and look forward to providing our Middle East audience with an exceptional luxury experience, and furthering our position as one of the leading luxury yacht dealers,” he said.

DIBS 2022 will set the industry on course for a sustainable future thanks to a focus on eco-conscious product launches, as well as driving important discussions on how the industry can give back to the environment. The mega five-day event aims to align with the UAE’s zero emission targets by shining a spotlight on solutions that consider eco-conscious trends as part of its make-up.

“Dubai has proven itself as a future-focused incubator of innovation and the 28th edition of the Dubai International Boat Show, a firm favourite for exhibitors, will reinforce the Emirate’s status as a driving force of the maritime and leisure industry, with many of our key exhibitors eager to enhance sustainability across the maritime industry,” said Trixie LohMirmand, executive vice-president, Events Management, Dubai World Trade Centre, organisers of the event.

“Dubai International Boat Show will leverage its popular influence and ongoing collaboration with local and global industry stakeholders to develop the allure of the recreational boating lifestyle and to boost marine tourism in the UAE and the region,” she said.

DIBS 2022 gathers super yacht builders

The show’s Superyacht Avenue is set to attract the world’s most luxurious and technologically advanced vessels. Numerous superyacht builders are set to showcase their latest craft and products – including SuperYacht Builders Association members Lurssen and Oceanco, who lead a cast that also features mainstream superyacht brands such as Azimut, Cranchi, Feretti, Gulf Craft, and Princess Yachts. A jaw-dropping line up of more than 50 floating mansions from some of the world’s leading marques, such as Feadship, Majesty and Nomad will also be on show.

Abeer AlShaali, deputy managing director, Gulf Craft, said Gulf Craft has been present at every edition of the Dubai International Boat Show since its very first event in 1992.

“As our ‘home show’ we are always keen to support the event and this year is no different as we will showcase 14 boats and yachts from our Majesty, Nomad, Oryx and Silvercraft brands, as well as two exciting world debuts and the reveal of the first design concepts of a very special new superyacht,” she said.

Middle East yachting conference

On March 8 as a prelude to DIBS 2022, the Middle East yachting conference will gather more than 100 leaders from the maritime industry who will dissect how the boating industry is working together to advance the region as a yachting hub. The conference will discuss topics including the empowerment of women in the yachting industry, the threat of cyber-attacks to superyachts and opportunities around cryptocurrency, and will hear from experts including Chloe Zaied, CEO, Hynova and Saqr Ereiqat, Co-Founder, Crypto Oasis Sentio.

Charting a sustainable course

France-based start-up SeaBubbles will use DIBS 2022 to introduce its new-generation, urban hydrogen flying boat, the SeaBubble H2, the sustainable transport alternative in waterways, marine zones, and protected areas.

Meanwhile, Sunreef Yachts, the world’s leading designer and manufacturer of luxury sailing and power multihulls, is showcasing its Sunreef80 Eco, which combines electric propulsion, superyacht living spaces, reliable sailing performance, and the industry’s latest green technologies to create a luxurious yet wholly eco-responsible craft.

“We always look to the Dubai International Boat Show as a key calendar date for our business and an opportunity to connect with both regional and international visitors to further our standing in the region. We also look to the show as a platform to discover what advances the industry has made, with this edition being a return to the norm and we are expecting some fantastic launches. As a world leader in the industry and a driver of eco-friendly vessels, we’re excited to announce that our Sunreef80 Eco will be on display at the event this month,” said Francis Lapp, founder and CEO, Sunreef Yachts.

Visiting from Italy, both Faro Boats and Azimut Yachts will also present eco-conscious offerings. The Faro 5 Solar Set is the first maritime set in the world to integrate a 100% sustainable electric boat and a solar-charging dock, while the Azimut 78 uses carbon fibre throughout, significantly reducing fuel consumption. On display in the Superyacht Zone, it is the first of the Flybridge collection and boasts a triple IPS Volvo Penta propulsion.

Also exhibiting at DIBS 2022 are SiFly, the innovative e-foil developer led by Alexander Bachev, a professional kitesurf hydrofoil racer campaigning for inclusion at the 2024 Olympic Games. SiFly has produced the world’s most user-friendly and emission-free e-foil, enabling riders to travel above the water without waves or wind. Riders can travel at up to 45kph for up to 120 minutes and leave zero wake.

Source: Khaleej Times

Flying Seabubbles boat on a test run in Lake Geneva © Axel Phélipon

All aboard! Europe’s ferry industry has set sail for an emissions-free future. It’s leading the eco-friendly revolution with electric and hydrogen-powered boats that are destined to make urban transport more sustainable.

In just a few months’ time, passengers in Stavanger, Norway, will be able to begin commuting on a revolutionary ferry that doesn’t produce any greenhouse gas emissions. Called Medstraum, which means both “to go with the flow” and “with electricity” in Norwegian, it will be the first high-speed vessel in the world that runs purely on electric power, replacing a diesel-powered ferry that currently shuttles people to surrounding islands.

If the trial goes well, similar vessels could soon operate in other cities too. ‘We’re in a very exciting period,’ said Mikal Dahle, a project manager at public transport company Kolumbus AS in Stavanger, Norway, and coordinator of the TrAM project which is developing the catamaran ferry. ‘We are now finalising the vessel and getting it ready.’

Medstraum is an example of the new and sustainable modes of transport set to transform urban mobility. In the EU, emissions from transport account for about 25% of total greenhouse gas emissions and are the main cause of air pollution in cities.

Furthermore, most people use roads to get around in urban areas where traffic jams have become a huge problem and cost an estimated €110 billion a year in Europe. ‘Waterways are underused for the time being and could be a great alternative,’ said Virginie Seurat, the VP at Seabubbles, a company developing a hydrogen-powered boat.

Our waterborne travel also needs to get a lot greener to meet the EU’s goal of reducing transport-related emissions by 90% by 2050. Existing high-speed craft, for example, are typically powered by fossil fuels and produce significant amounts of emissions.

‘It’s much more polluting to travel with (conventional) fast ferries compared to aeroplanes,’ noted Dahle. ‘A proper reduction in CO2 emissions is one of the main challenges for inshore vessels.’

Rethinking electric boat production

Dahle and his colleagues in the TrAM project are tackling this challenge with a novel design and production method for zero-emission electric vessels operating in coastal waters and inland waterways. Cost is still a barrier since these vessels are more expensive to build compared to those powered by diesel fuel, but the new approach should make them more affordable.

‘The goal is to establish and validate a methodology for the design and production of (electric) craft that reduces the overall cost by 25%,’ said Dahle. ‘We want to make it possible for a large market to invest in zero-emission vessels.’

Their new approach is based on modularisation, where a boat is divided into different functional parts, such as the hull and passenger section, which are in turn subdivided into individual components, like the batteries and electrical equipment in the energy module.

The idea is that a new vessel could be designed and built by piecing together pre-existing modules instead of starting from scratch, making the process more efficient and cost-effective. ‘Some (parts) are standardised, like the seats in the vessel, so we can pick out exactly what we need for a boat at relatively low cost since they are produced in certain volumes,’ explained Dahle. ‘Then we have other things that need to be adjusted for each vessel like the hull shape and the motors.’

Setting sail for new electric vessels

Medstraum is the first vessel being created using this approach, and aims to demonstrate its feasibility. Built from lightweight aluminium to reduce energy consumption will also allow the vessel to be easily recycled after use and contribute to the circular economy. The vessel will be able to carry around 150 passengers at speeds of up to 42 km/h and will make 16 round trips per day. The ferry’s electric battery will be charged each time it stops at Stavanger.

Dahle and his colleagues will use the same approach to develop two other boats. One will be designed to transport either passengers or goods on the River Thames in London, while the other will be used on inland waterways in Belgium and will therefore need to be adapted for different purposes and environments. The London craft will be required to travel at a higher speed and have a larger capacity than the Stavanger vessel, for example, while the boat to be used in Belgium will need to meet different rules and regulations. 

A ‘flying’ boat powered by hydrogen

City commuters could also soon use a ‘flying’ water taxi to get around thanks to another team aiming to lower the environmental impact of water transport. Seurat’s colleagues have developed the first zero-emission hydrofoil craft that glides above waves powered by a hydrogen fuel cell and battery as part of the Seabubbles project.

‘The idea is to offer citizens new solutions that are a step forward in terms of a green way of life,’ said Baptiste Arribe, the strategy director at Seabubbles in Annecy, France.

The futuristic-looking craft, which is made of composite fibres, can operate in two different modes and has been developed for waterways, lakes and marine zones. When travelling at less than 12 km/h, its hydrofoils are retracted and it navigates like a conventional vessel. However, at higher speeds its foils are deployed and the hull is lifted 60 centimetres above the water’s surface, which results in a smooth ride even in choppy waters. ‘People are excited about the passenger experience because there are zero waves and no noise,’ said Seurat.

The ‘flying’ mode has environmental advantages too. It uses 35% less energy compared to the conventional mode since gliding on the foils reduces the surface area of the boat immersed in water and hence the amount of friction.

Charging versus refuelling

When they developed the prototype, the team initially planned to power the craft with electricity produced from solar panels and hydropower. But they later decided to switch to hydrogen power since a boat could travel further on a full tank of the gas compared to a single charge. It would also take less time to refuel; a hydrogen top-up that takes just a few minutes allows the boat to run for about two and a half hours.

While the latest Seabubble boat still runs on electricity, it is generated by a hydrogen fuel cell. It also contains a battery that is charged by the fuel cell when the craft is cruising to provide extra power when needed, for example during acceleration. Artificial intelligence is used to optimise the use of energy between the battery and fuel cell to make the boat as energy efficient as possible. ‘We combine the avant-garde in energy and (the latest) technology with our control system,’ Seurat explained.

Constructing the first Seabubbles

The first Seabubble boats are currently being assembled at a shipyard on the shores of Lake Annecy in France. They will be available to European buyers in a few months’ time and later to the international market.

Able to carry up to 12 passengers, the vessels are of particular interest to private services for use as a shuttle for hotels located on the waterfront or as a quiet craft to take visitors around a nature reserve without disturbing wildlife.

While these vessels could also be used for public transport, cost remains a barrier. However, the EU’s commitment to supporting the large-scale deployment of clean hydrogen technologies by 2030 should make it easier to implement Seabubbles more widely. ‘In the beginning, we need the support of governments to create the overall hydrogen infrastructure,’ concluded Seurat. ‘Then everything will come together, and I think we will change the mobility field.’

Source: Modern Diplomacy

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EgyptAir aims to reduce the use of single-use plastic materials on its flights by 90%.

Cairo International Airport launched Africa’s first test flight with environmentally friendly services on board to Paris, led by EgyptAir.

The Boeing 787-9 Dreamliner was led by the Egyptian minister of civil aviation and had 219 passengers onboard.

The flight coincides with the ministry of aviation’s celebration of the 92nd National Day of Egyptian Civil Aviation, which falls on Jan. 26 of each year.

Mohamed Manar said the success of the environmentally friendly trip comes in line with the ministry of aviation’s plan to confront the effects of climate change.

EgyptAir aims to reduce the use of single-use plastic materials on its flights by 90%.

It identified 27 products made of single-use plastic that were used on planes and replaced them with environmentally friendly products.

The Egyptian airline has set out a timetable for all flights to Europe with environmentally friendly products and services by 2025, to be circulated to all airline network flights, Amr Abol-Enein, the head of the holding company for EgyptAir, said.

Source: ArabNews

The Texas Renewable Funds (TRF) plant in Bon Wier, TX will process wood waste into 35 million gal/yr of sustainable transportation fuels.

A subsidiary of renewable fuels development group USA BioEnergy is moving forward on plans to build a new $1.7 million biorefinery in Bon Wier, TX that will process forest industry byproducts into 34 million gal/yr of eco-friendly transportation fuels, Texas Gov. Greg Abbott announced Tuesday.

The Texas Renewable Funds (TRF) facility will supply sustainable aviation fuel, renewable diesel, and renewable naphtha.

“USA BioEnergy performed an extensive site search and analysis to identify the best location for our project,” the firm’s CEO, Nick Andrews, said in a release. “State and local incentives then became the key component of our decision and we’re excited to select Bon Wier.”

Over time, the company intends to double the site’s capacity to 68 million gal/yr. The facility will also capture and sequester 50 million mt of CO2 over the location’s lifespan. 

“This investment will further cement Texas as an innovative energy leader and will bring unprecedented economic opportunities to Bon Wier and Newton County,” Gov. Abbott said in a statement.

USA BioEnergy said in a separate release that it has entered into fuel offtake agreements with “a major trading and logistics company, as well as one of the world’s premier airlines.”

142 new jobs will be created through the project. Work on the site is slated to reach completion toward the end of 2025.

Source: Powder Bulk Solids

Inside the new RHS Garden Bridgewater, the biggest horticultural project in Europe. The Telegraph

The European general aviation market is projected to witness a CAGR of 5. 15 % during the forecast period (2022 – 2027). The aviation sector in the European region has witnessed a severe impact due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

New York, Feb. 07, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Reportlinker.com announces the release of the report “Europe General Aviation Market – Growth, Trends, COVID-19 Impact, and Forecasts (2022 – 2027)” – reportlinker.com/p06227782/?utm_source=GNW Similar to scheduled services, the non-scheduled operations also decreased significantly in 2020 (business aviation decreased by about 29%), which has affected the deliveries of general aviation aircraft. However, in 2021, the demand for charter and private travel increased significantly, and the deliveries increased to pre-COVID-19 levels.

The demand for charter and private travel increased, as the travelers who could afford private travel abandoned commercial flying for the perceived safety and convenience of private travel in the region. Most of the countries in Europe opened tourist hotspots for vaccinated travelers, resulting in a rebound in tourism activities in 2021. This increase in travel and tourism in the region is anticipated to propel the growth of the market in the coming years.

Also, the European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) has been undertaking various initiatives to promote general aviation activities in the region. These measures are expected to mitigate a majority of the traditional challenges faced by the general aviation operators in Europe, thereby helping the growth of the market studied.

Companies are investing in the development and certification of new generation aircraft models with enhanced features to attract potential customers. The aircraft OEMs are focused on the development of fuel-efficient aircraft engines and designs to comply with the stringent emission norms being enforced across Europe. The advent of new models is likely to increase the competition among the existing players in the market and the availability of options for the customers, thereby driving the growth of the general aviation market in the region.

Key Market Trends

The Business Jet Segment is Anticipated to Witness the Highest Growth

The business jets segment of the European general aviation market currently dominates the market. It is expected to continue its dominance during the forecast period, primarily due to relatively higher deliveries of business jets and their higher cost compared to other types of general aviation aircraft. The business jet utilization rate in Europe decreased by 29.3% in 2020 compared to 2019. However, business operations increased significantly in 2021 compared to 2020 due to significant growth in flight activity to leisure destinations. Also, the growth has not been consistent across the year, as several months in 2021 saw a drop in demand compared to 2019 levels. That is expected to improve in 2022 with the opening of more routes. In Europe, deliveries of new business jets declined in 2020 and again increased in 2021 with Pilatus PC-24 and Bombardier Global 7500 aircraft being the best-selling business jets 2021. Europe is a major market for charter service providers. These providers maintain a significantly large fleet of business jets to fly to North America and the Middle East & Africa. According to the major charter service providers in Europe, demand increased significantly toward the end of 2021 and managed to surpass 2019 pre-pandemic levels of traffic. Business aviation traffic has been approximately 20%-30% more than 2019 since August 2021. Due to such strong demand, the charter jet service companies are expanding their fleets to meet the growing demand. For instance, in July 2021, Flexjet, part of the Directional Aviation family, received an Air Operator Certificate (AOC) for Malta as part of its expansion in the European region. The aircraft operator increased its fleet in Europe by 40% in the first half of 2021. Such developments are anticipated to drive the business jets segment of the market during the forecast period.

The United Kingdom is Expected Witness Highest Growth During the Forecast Period

The United Kingdom is anticipated to witness the highest growth in Europe general aviation market during the forecast period. The post-Brexit scenario of business aviation has changed and provided an opportunity for government agencies, industry players, and associations to work together to improve the business aviation environment in the country. The demand for business aviation has recovered to a certain extent, and there has been an increase in the number of new owners entering the market. With the increased demand for business aviation, new companies are expanding their presence in the country. In this regard, Eclipse Air Charter announced in October 2020 that the company opened a new international headquarters in Mayfair, London, due to increased demand for internal tourism. In the coming years, the company plans to expand its presence further in the European region. The aircraft operators are also expanding their fleet of business jets and helicopters. For instance, in May 2021, Yorkshire Air Ambulance announced that it would be replacing its two existing helicopters with a new H145 D3 model. Of the two new helicopters, the first is expected to arrive in Yorkshire in Spring 2023, with the second in summer 2023. Also, the United Kingdom is anticipated to begin the deployment of its electric air taxis during the forecast period. Such developments are anticpated to drive the growth of the general aviation market in the United Kingdom.

Competitive Landscape

The Europe general aviation market is dominated by players such as Bombardier Inc., General Dynamics Corporation (through Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation), Embraer SA, Leonardo S.p.A., and Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. The companies are investing in the development of new generation aircraft models with enhanced features to attract new potential customers. In this regard, in May 2021, Dassault Aviation unveiled the Falcon 10X, an all-new Falcon jet with a range of 7,500 nautical miles at Mach 0.85. According to the company, the aircraft has the largest cabin in its class and can accommodate four-cabin zones of equal length. The company also allows its customers to customize the interior like an expanded dining/conference area, a dedicated entertainment area with a large-screen monitor, etc. The aircraft is expected to enter service by the end of 2025. The companies are also investing in the development of eco-friendly aircraft. Commercial companies, charter operators, and other aircraft operators are acquiring new aircraft to enhance their operations. For instance, in November 2021, Airbus Helicopters announced that the company delivered the first five-bladed H145 helicopter to HTM Helicopters equipped with a powerful hoist, floatation equipment, and a cargo hook. Such introductions of new aircraft models and the partnerships of aircraft operators and aircraft OEMs are anticipated to help the companies increase their market shares.

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Source: Yahoo Finance

Aircraft manufacturer, Airbus, is to recruit around 6,000 staff, it has revealed. The European manufacturing giant employs around 4,500 staff at its wing-making plant at Broughton, near Chester. It said the new roles will be spread across the group and has given no specific details on which sites will see their headcount increase. The recruitment drive is in response to strong signs of recovery post-COVID in the aerospace industry, and linked to the group’s plans to prepare the future of aviation and implement its roadmap for decarbonisation.

Thierry Baril, chief human resources and workplace officer, said: “Airbus has demonstrated resilience throughout the COVID crisis, and has laid the foundations for a bold future for sustainable aviation. “This can only be achieved by acquiring the right talents in the various domains of expertise that will help us grow our activities as we come out of the crisis, while preparing the long term transformation of the company.”

He added: “Following this initial wave of recruitment, which will take place worldwide and across all our businesses, the number of external hires will be reassessed before mid-year 2022 and we will adjust our needs accordingly. “Not only will we look at acquiring the new skills that Airbus needs in the post-COVID world, but we will also do our utmost to reinforce diversity across the company, fostering a safe and inclusive culture reinforcing Team Airbus to be ready to pioneer sustainable aerospace.”

About a quarter of the planned recruitments should focus on acquiring the new skills to support the company’s long term projects and ambition, notably in the fields of decarbonisation, digital transformation and cyber technology. A third of the total recruitment will be allocated to young graduates. Broughton lost around 1,500 staff during the COVID lockdowns due to the world’s aviation industry going into limbo as fleets were grounded following the closure of borders to contain the spread of the pandemic. Production at the plant near Chester was cut back as orders dried up.

However, the group is now experiencing growth in its order book as worldwide flights begin to resume, and many carriers look to replace older aircraft with fuel-efficient and eco-friendly planes. Earlier this week the group revealed that it delivered 611 commercial aircraft to 88 customers in 2021, which it said demonstrated resilience and recovery with progress on ramp-up plans.

Airbus chief executive, Guillaume Faury, said: “While uncertainties remain, we are on track to lift production through 2022 to meet our customers’ requirements. At the same time we are preparing the future of aviation, transforming our industrial capabilities and implementing the roadmap for decarbonisation.” Airbus makes aircraft for the commercial and military markets, as well as helicopters and satellites.

Source: The Business Deck

Jason Hawkes

London is to be home to the UK’s first eco-friendly high-speed passenger boats by the end of this year, it has been revealed. Uber Boat by Thames Clippers, which operates passenger riverboat services in London, will be welcoming two new hybrid vessels to its fleet; the first of which will take to the Thames in autumn this year. The company also recently entered into negotiations with a local council in Gravesend to purchase the town pier, meaning London’s regular riverboat service could be extended to as far as Kent. Built on the Isle of Wight, the two new boats will be powered by batteries while in central London then switching to biofuel power while outside the central zone. Excess power from the biofuel engines will be used to charge the batteries, removing the need for onshore charging. The first of the two new hybrid boats in Thames Clipper’s fleet will enter service in autumn 2022 while the second will arrive in spring 2023. Sean Collins, CEO and co-founder of Uber Boat by Thames Clippers, has said the new vessels will be a “significant” step towards achieving net zero carbon emissions in London. Mr. Collins said: “It’s going to significantly take us on those next steps to net zero. It’s a significant milestone for the business and, indeed, it’s going to be the first eco-friendly passenger boat for London. It’s certainly a first for a high-speed craft in the UK and probably Europe that will be operating solely on batteries for part of its journey.” But he added the River Thames is “not fulfilling its potential” as an alternative means of transport in London and that it has “significant potential to do more”. Mayor of London Sadiq Khan last week warned congestion on London’s roads could cost the economy as much as £5.1 billion as new figures revealed that car usage in the capital has almost recovered to pre-pandemic levels. Despite an increase in the number of people cycling during the pandemic, passenger numbers on public transport have been slow to recover meaning that a greater share of journeys made in London are by car. Sean Collins said: “The River Thames has got significant potential to do more, both for passengers and light freight. I believe it has got a significant part to play in taking vehicles off the road. “Historically we’ve noticed that we actually do that. A lot of our customers’ alternative would be to take a taxi or to take a private car. But our customer experience is something that really would act as a real alternative to that private vehicle.”

Source: Standard 

Advantages for Aviation

Biomass energy

The benefits of biomass energy for aviation is reduction in carbon emission using biofuels as compared to fossil fuels. Commercial planes use kerosene-based fuel. However algae, rotting fruit, vegetable oil and even used diapers can be used to generate jet fuel. Biofuels have the potential to reduce carbon emissions from aero-planes by up to 60%, allowing them to pollute as little as buses and railways. Biomass energy is also cheaper than fossil fuels resulting in more cost effective benefits for aviation.

Geothermal energy

The benefits of geothermal energy for aviation is supplying large-scale heating and cooling loads in terminal building by using geothermal heat pumps. Geothermal heat pumps may necessitate new heating and cooling distribution systems within the terminal building. They are most cost-effective when used in new construction or large renovations. Geothermal energy has the potential to save up to 80% on energy costs when compared to traditional energy sources. It also requires less maintenance than other energy sources.

Hydro energy
The benefits of hydro energy for aviation is supply of a large amount of energy for the terminal use in a cost effective manner. It has low emissions and more reliability. It has flexibility to meet the needs of the aviation sector. However, it requires huge capital costs of land, concrete, electricity turbines, and modern control systems.

Solar energy

The benefits of solar energy for aviation is it’s low profile and ability to blend in with existing development, it is ideal for airports. Its low profile prevents it from becoming a physical stumbling block and a safety hazard, which may be a problem when other renewable technologies, such as wind power, are located near airports. Solar can also be attached to current or prospective structures, with the building structure (rather than the solar project) determining whether or not airspace blockage is present.

Tidal energy

The benefits of tidal energy for aviation is supply of emission free energy/power for the terminal building especially located near the coastal areas. Because of the density of water, it is more efficient than wind energy and more efficient than solar energy due to its high 80% conversion efficiency. Tides are also more predictable than wind and solar energy, making it more dependable. It produces no environmental emission and has low maintenance costs as compared to the other energy sources.

Wind energy

The benefits of wind energy for aviation is to generate a considerable amount of electricity, and to ensure that aviation continues to operate effectively and safely in an area where wind farms are ubiquitous. It has low running and maintenance cost as compared to other resources. Wind energy reduces the price uncertainty that fuel costs add to traditional energy sources. It has no environmental emissions, which make a clean energy source for the aviation sector.

Advantages for boating

Biomass energy

The benefits of biomass energy for boating is reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by utilizing a renewable wood biomass fuel source in place of the more conventional fossil fuels. Everyone recognizes that the future of yachting is “electric,” particularly hybrid technology that combines batteries and hydrogen, in whatever form it is stored. Biomass energy is a way to reduce costs and help make long passages possible on small amounts of diesel fuel. Biomass energy switching a race committee boat to biodiesel or sailing around the world without a drop of diesel.

Geothermal energy

The benefits of geothermal energy for boating is more environmentally friendly and carbon footprint of a geothermal energy is lower than conventional energy. The earth’s hot reservoirs are naturally replenished, making it both a renewable and sustainable solution for yachting. Geothermal energy can be extremely beneficial as compared to traditional energy usage. It also requires less maintenance than traditional energy sources. It can be used to manage the load of heat and cool the system of the yacht.

Hydro energy

The benefits of hydro energy for boating is an optimal output associated with a negligible drag, letting the boat sail with a positive energy. It has an energy self-sufficiency solution on board cruise or race boats, in the respect of the environment. Many boats use hydro-generators to charge their batteries. Much like an upside-down wind generator, they have become popular in recent years as their increasing efficiency and reduced drag means they barely affect a boat’s speed.

Solar energy

The benefits of solar energy for boating is that it reduces carbon emissions, diesel costs and drastically reduces noise levels. The cost of maintaining and running a boat could be drastically reduced and the boat could become self-sustainable, eliminating the cost of fuel altogether. Many boats are equipped with solar panels to charge their batteries. The load on the battery bank will be reduced, which is easier and less costly than generating more power. Carbon dioxide emissions will be reduced as well and there will be significant noise reduction. It has low maintenance cost as compared to other sources as well.

Tidal energy

The benefits of tidal energy for boating is to continuously recharge boat batteries or supply electric load and is able to generate a surplus of clean, free energy for recharging batteries. It improves the stability of the boat. This can be used to simultaneously power an electricity generator and stabilize the boat, improving onboard comfort. Extracting energy from flow of water rather than directly from air has advantages, as the power density is much higher. The water flow through the underwater generator has a power density of 36 kilowatts per square meter – far more than the 1.2 kilowatts per square meter typical of air blowing through a rotating wind turbine. The more concentrated energy means that the equipment needed to harvest it can be smaller.

Wind energy

The benefits of wind energy for boating is to protect the ocean from air and water pollution. Strategically developing our offshore wind power resources will replace the region’s dominant reliance on dirty sources of energy with one that is local, non-polluting, and inexhaustible. It will help protect wildlife and future generations from the dangerous impacts of climate change and ocean acidification. It is also cheaper than other resources.

Source: Eco-Friendly Aviation and Boating News, Clara Phataraprasit, Farrukh Javed

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United recently became the largest airline to invest in zero-emission, hydrogen-electric engines for regional aircraft, the latest move toward achieving its goal to be 100% green by reducing its GHG emissions 100% by 2050, without relying on traditional carbon offsets.

Through a new equity stake in ZeroAvia, a leading company focused on hydrogen-electric aviation solutions, United expects to buy up to 100 of the company’s new zero-emission, 100% hydrogen-electric engines (ZA2000-RJ). The engine could be retrofit to existing United Express aircraft as early as 2028. One potential use is on United’s unique CRJ-550, the only 50-seat aircraft which offers first class and other premium amenities, making this leading aircraft even better and marking another first for United.

“Hydrogen-electric engines are one of the most promising paths to zero-emission air travel for smaller aircraft, and this investment will keep United out in front on this important emerging technology,” said Scott Kirby, CEO of United. “United continues to look for opportunities to not only advance our own sustainability initiatives but also identify and help technologies and solutions that the entire industry can adopt.”

Hydrogen-electric engines use electricity created by a chemical reaction in a fuel cell to power an electric motor instead of burning fossil fuel. Because no fuel is burned, there are no climate-harming emissions or carbon released into the atmosphere when the engines are operated.

The ZA2000-RJ is expected to be used in pairs as a new power source for existing regional aircraft. Under the agreement with United Airlines Ventures, United will pursue a conditional purchase agreement for 50 ZeroAvia ZA2000-RJ engines, with an option for 50 more, enough for up to 50 twin-engine aircraft which would be operated by United Express partners once they are fully developed and certified by regulators as soon as 2028.

“This support by United, alongside our other forward-thinking partners, demonstrates the importance of hydrogen-electric propulsion in the future of sustainable flight,” said Val Miftakhov, founder and CEO and of ZeroAvia. “The United Express routes powered by hydrogen-electric aircraft will be enabling large numbers of passengers to take zero-emission flights well within this decade.”

ZeroAvia is accelerating development of its ZA2000 engine and will soon begin ground tests of its ZA600 in a 19-seat aircraft, with the aim of entering commercial service with this smaller engine by 2024. ZeroAvia’s roadmap calls for it to develop hydrogen-electric propulsion for progressively larger aircraft. In September 2020, ZeroAvia completed the world’s first hydrogen fuel cell powered flight of a commercial-grade aircraft. ZeroAvia has already secured experimental certificates for two prototype aircraft from the FAA in the United States and the Civil Aviation Authority in the U.K. and has passed significant flight test milestones.

On December 1, United made aviation history by operating the first passenger flight using 100% sustainable aviation fuel, from Chicago to Washington, D.C. The flight showcased the safety of sustainable aviation fuel and the potential for a dramatically reduced carbon footprint for aviation.

Earlier this year, United announced a record-setting agreement to purchase sustainable aviation fuel from Alder Fuels and has now committed to purchase more than twice as much of this fuel as the rest of the world’s airlines combined. These investments and the accomplishments below make United the global aviation leader in supporting technology used to sustainably power commercial aircraft:

  • United recently agreed to purchase 1.5 billion gallons of SAF from Alder Fuels – enough to fly more than 57 million passengers and is also an investor in Fulcrum BioEnergy, where United has an option to purchase up to 900 million gallons of additional SAF.
  • In July 2021, United Airlines Ventures (UAV) announced that along with Breakthrough Energy Ventures and Mesa Airlines, it has invested in electric aircraft startup Heart Aerospace. Heart Aerospace is developing the ES-19, a 19-seat electric aircraft that has the potential to fly customers with zero emissions when powered by renewable electricity.
  • In July 2021, Air Transport World magazine named United its Eco-Airline of the Year for the third time.
  • In June 2021, as part of its agreement with Boom Supersonic, United announced plans to purchase 15 of Boom’s “Overture” airliners (with an option for 35 more). Slated to carry passengers in 2029, the net-zero aircraft plans to fly on 100% SAF.
  • In February 2021, United announced an agreement to work with Archer Aviation to accelerate the development and production of their electric aircraft – an urban mobility solution that has the potential to serve as an ‘air taxi,’ giving United customers another opportunity to reduce their carbon footprint before they even board a United flight.
  • In 2020, United became the first airline to announce a commitment to invest in direct air capture, a carbon capture and sequestration technology. United remains committed to investing in carbon capture and sequestration as a key pathway to achieving its climate goals.
  • In 2019, United operated the Flight for the Planet, which represented the most-eco-friendly commercial flight of its kind in the history of commercial aviation.
  • In 2018, United became the first U.S. airline to commit to reducing its GHG emissions, by 50% by 2050. This goal has since been superseded by the airline’s 100% green commitment.
  • In 2016, United became the first airline globally to use SAF in regular operations on a continuous basis with SAF from World Energy.

About United Airlines

United’s shared purpose is “Connecting People. Uniting the World.” In 2019, United and United Express® carriers operated more than 1.7 million flights carrying more than 162 million customers. United has the most comprehensive route network among North American carriers, including U.S. mainland hubs in Chicago, Denver, Houston, Los Angeles, New York/Newark, San Francisco and Washington, D.C. For more about how to join the United team, please visit united.com/careers and more information about the company is at united.com. United Airlines Holdings, Inc. is traded on the Nasdaq under the symbol “UAL”.

Forward-Looking Statements

This press release contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. All statements that are not statements of historical facts are, or may be deemed to be, forward-looking statements. Such forward-looking statements are based on historical performance and current expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections about our future financial results, goals, plans, commitments, strategies and objectives and involve inherent risks, assumptions and uncertainties, known or unknown, including internal or external factors that could delay, divert or change any of them, that are difficult to predict, may be beyond our control and could cause our future financial results, goals, plans and objectives to differ materially from those expressed in, or implied by, the statements. These risks, assumptions, uncertainties and other factors include, among others, the parties’ ability to satisfy certain post-closing conditions, any delay or inability of United Airlines to realize the expected benefits of the proposed transaction and that the proposed transaction will materialize on the terms or within the time frame described in this document. No forward-looking statement can be guaranteed. Forward-looking statements in this press release should be evaluated together with the many risks and uncertainties that affect United’s business and market, particularly those identified in the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Risk Factors” sections in United’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 and Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended June 30, 2021, as updated by our subsequent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The forward-looking statements included in this document are made only as of the date of this document and except as otherwise required by applicable law or regulation, United undertakes no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events, changed circumstances or otherwise.

Source: News Direct